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Golden Books. The Berenstain Bears. Roald Dahl. Big Fat Notebook Series. No Fear Shakespeare. John C. Malcolm Gladwell. Simon Sinek. Six Sigma. Stephen Covey. John G. Spencer Johnson. Travis Bradberry. Gary Chapman. Henry Cloud. Joel Osteen. Max Lucado. Mitch Albom. Sarah Young. At that time there lay a great natural lake close by the great river of Benares.

When there was much water, river and lake were one; but when the water was low, they were apart. Now fish and tortoises know by instinct when the year will be rainy and when there will be a drought. So at the time of our story the fish and tortoises which lived in that lake knew there would be a drought; and when the two were one water, they swam out of the lake into the river.

But there was one tortoise that would not go into the river, because, said he, "here I was born, and here I have grown up, and here is my parents' home. Leave it I cannot! Then in the hot season the water all dried up. He dug a hole and buried himself, just in the place where the Bodhisatta was used to come for clay. There the Bodhisatta came to get some clay. With a big spade he dug down, until he cracked the tortoise's shell, turning him out on the ground as though he were a large piece of clay.

In his agony the creature thought, "Here I am, dying, all because I was too fond of my home to leave it! So he went on and on, talking to the Bodhisatta, until he died. The Bodhisatta picked him up, and collecting all the villagers addressed them thus: "Look at this tortoise. When the other fish and tortoises went into the great river, he was too fond of home to go with them, and buried himself in the place where I get my clay. Then as I was digging for clay, I broke his shell with my big spade, and turned him out on the ground in the belief that he was a large lump of clay.

Then he called to mind what he had done, lamented his fate in two verses of poetry, and expired. So you see he came to his end because he was too fond of his home. Take care not to be like this tortoise. Don't say to yourselves, 'I have sight, I have hearing, I have smell, I have taste, I have touch, I have a son, I have a daughter, I have numbers of men and maids for my service, I have precious gold.


Each being passes through three stages of existence. Thus did he exhort the crowd with all a Buddha's skill. The discourse was bruited abroad all over India, and for full seven thousand years it was remembered. All the crowd abode by his exhortation, and gave alms, and did good until at last they went to swell the hosts of heaven.

A type A folktale. His name was Radha, and his youngest brother was named Potthapada. While they were yet quite young, both of them were caught by a fowler and handed over to a Brahmin in Benares. The Brahmin cared for them as if they were his children. But the Brahmin's wife was a wicked woman. There was no watching her. The husband had to go away on business, and addressed his young parrots thus: "Little dears, I am going away on business. Keep watch on your mother in season and out of season.

Observe whether or not any man visits her. As soon as he was gone, the woman began to do wrong. Night and day the visitors came and went. There was no end to them. Potthapada, observing this, said to Radha, "Our master gave this woman into our charge, and here she is doing wickedness. I will speak to her. How she longed to kill him! But making as though she would fondle him, she called him to her. I will never do it again! Here, then the dear! Then she seized him, crying, "What!

You preach to me! You don't know your measure! The Brahmin returned. When he had rested, he asked the Bodhisatta, "Well, my dear, what about your mother? Does she do wrong, or no? Radha answered, "Father dear, the wise speak not of things which do not conduce to blessing, whether they have happened or not. Thus did the Bodhisatta hold forth to the Brahmin. And he went on, "This is no place for me to live in either. The Parrot and the Adulterous Woman , folktales of type The Monkey's Heart Once upon a time, while Brahmadatta was king of Benares, the Bodhisatta came to life at the foot of the Himalayas as a monkey.

He grew strong and sturdy, big of frame, well to do, and lived by a curve of the river Ganges in a forest haunt. Now at that time there was a crocodile dwelling in the Ganges. The crocodile's mate saw the great frame of the monkey, and she conceived a longing to eat his heart.

So she said to her lord, "Sir, I desire to eat the heart of that great king of the monkeys! How can we catch him? I have a plan. I will give you his heart to eat. So when the Bodhisatta was sitting on the bank of the Ganges, after taking a drink of water, the crocodile drew near, and said, "Sir Monkey, why do you live on bad fruits in this old familiar place? On the other side of the Ganges there is no end to the mango trees, and labuja trees, with fruit sweet as honey! Is it not better to cross over and have all kinds of wild fruit to eat?

The monkey trusted him, and agreed. But when the crocodile had swum a little way, he plunged the monkey under the water. The crocodile said, "You think I am carrying you out of pure good nature? Not a bit of it! My wife has a longing for your heart, and I want to give it to her to eat.! Why, if our heart were inside us, when we go jumping among the tree tops it would be all knocked to pieces!

The Jataka : or stories of the Buddha's former births

The Bodhisatta pointed out a fig tree, with clusters of ripe fruit, standing not far off. The crocodile brought him to the place. The monkey leapt off his back, and, climbing up the fig tree, sat upon it. You are a fool, and I have outwitted you! You may keep your fruit to yourself. Your body is great, but you have no sense. The crocodile, feeling as sad and miserable as if he had lost a thousand pieces of money, went back sorrowing to the place where he lived.

A type 91 folktale. Link to additional tales of this type: The Monkey's Heart. The Talkative Tortoise The Jataka Tales Once on a time Brahmadatta was king of Benares, and the Bodhisatta, being born to one of the king's court, grew up, and became the king's adviser in all things human and divine. But this king was very talkative; and when he talked there was no chance for any other to get in a word.

And the Bodhisatta, wishing to put a stop to his much talking, kept watching for an opportunity. Now there dwelt a tortoise in a certain pond in the region of Himalaya. Two young wild geese, searching for food, struck up an acquaintance with him; and by and by they grew close friends together. One day these two said to him: "Friend Tortoise, we have a lovely home in Himalaya, on a plateau of Mount Cittakuta, in a cave of gold! Will you come with us? The village children saw this, and exclaimed: "There are two geese carrying a tortoise by a stick!

The Tortoise wanted to cry out: "Well, and if my friends do carry me, what is that to you, you caitiffs? What an uproar there was! The king, with the Bodhisatta, and all his court, came up to the place, and seeing the tortoise asked the Bodhisatta a question. No doubt the truth is this: The tortoise and the geese became friendly; the geese must have meant to carry him to Himalaya, and so made him hold a stick between his teeth, and then lifted him into the air; then he must have heard some remark, and wanted to reply; and not being able to keep his mouth shut he must have let himself go; and so he must have fallen from the sky and thus come by his death.

See thou speak wisely, see thou speak in season. To death the tortoise fell; He talked too much. That was the reason. And thenceforward the king abstained from talking, and became a man of few words. Cowell, vol. Translated from the Pali by W. One day they sent for the charioteer and said to him, "We want to see a Judas tree [ butea frondosa ]. Show us one! But he did not show it to them all together. He took the eldest at once to the forest in the chariot, and showed him the tree at the time when the buds were just sprouting from the stem.

To the second he showed it when the leaves were green. To the third at the time of blossoming. And to the fourth when it was bearing fruit. After this it happened that the four brothers were sitting together and someone asked, "What sort of a tree is the Judas tree? They were vexed at each other's answers, and ran to find their father. Said the king, "All four of you have seen the tree. Only when the charioteer showed you the tree, you did not ask him, 'What is the tree like at such a time, or at such another time?

This parable conveys a similar message to that of the famouse tale of The Blind Men and the Elephant. And when fully grown he lived in a wood. At this time there was near the Western Ocean a grove of palms mixed with vilva trees. A certain hare lived here beneath a palm sapling, at the foot of a vilva tree. One day this hare, after feeding, came and lay down beneath the young palm tree. And the thought struck him, "If this earth should be destroyed, what would become of me? And at this very moment a ripe vilva fruit fell on a palm leaf.

At the sound of it, the hare thought, "This solid earth is collapsing," and starting up he fled, without so much as looking behind him. Another hare saw him scampering off, as if frightened to death, and asked the cause of his panic flight. And at this the second hare ran after the other. And so first one and then another hare caught sight of him running, and joined in the chase till one hundred thousand hares all took to flight together.

They were seen by a deer, a boar, an elk, a buffalo, a wild ox, a rhinoceros, a tiger, a lion, and an elephant. And when they asked what it meant and were told that the earth was breaking up, they too took to flight. So by degrees this host of animals extended to the length of a full league. When the Bodhisatta saw this headlong flight of the animals, and heard the cause of it was that the earth was coming to an end, he thought, "The earth is nowhere coming to an end. Surely it must be some sound which was misunderstood by them. And if I don't make a great effort, they will all perish.

I will save their lives. So with the speed of a lion he got before them to the foot of a mountain, and lion-like roared three times. They were terribly frightened at the lion, and stopping in their flight stood all huddled together. The lion went in amongst them and asked why there were running away. When the hares were questioned, they pointed to one particular hare and said, "This one told us.

For as I was lying beneath the shade of a palm sapling at the foot of a vilva tree, methought, 'If this earth should break up, where shall I go? Thought the lion, "A ripe vilva fruit evidently must have fallen on a palm leaf and made a 'thud,' and this hare jumped to the conclusion that the earth was coming to an end, and ran away. I will find out the exact truth about it. By Doni , Italian of last but one. First edition in vi. Seventh century A. There is a black-letter edition? Spiers, in the British Museum. John of Damascus, published at Basel in the sixteenth century. An abbreviated version in Latin of the fourteenth century in the British Museum.

Arundel MS. See Koch, No. Barlaam und Josaphat. A poem of the thirteenth century, published from a MS. Another poem, partly published from an imperfect MS. By Rudolf von Ems. Written about This popular treatment of the subject exists in numerous MSS. Date and author not named. Title on last page. Fifty-six short chapters. Quaint and forcible old German. A small folio in the British Museum. Historia von dem Leben der zweien H. In 40 long chapters, pp. Noo in Nederduits vertaalt door F.

A new edition of this version appeared in This is a long and tedious prose version of the holy legend. Poem by Gui de Cambray They mention, also pp. La Vie de Seint Josaphaz. Poem by Chardry. Edited by John Koch , Heilbronn, , who confirms the editors of No. A poem in French of the fifteenth century, based on the abstract in Latin of No. Vita di san Giosafat convertito da Barlaam. By Geo. Antonio Remondini. Published about , at Venezia and Bassano, 16mo.

There is a second edition of this, also without date; and a third, published in Modena in , with illustrations. Barlaam e Giosafatte. By Bottari , Rome, , 8vo.

Jatakas: the many lives of Buddha as Bodhisattva (article) | Khan Academy

A prose romance, edited by Telesforo Bini from a MS. A prose Vita da Santo Josafat. In MS. Unger , Christiania, , 8vo. Honesta, etc. By Baltasat de Santa Cruz. Published in the Spanish dialect used in the Philippine Islands at Manila, A literal translation of Billius No. There is another recension of the same poem in the Harleian MS. Both are of the fourteenth century; and of the second there is another copy in the Vernon MS. This is a prose romance, and an abridged translation of the Italian version of No.

The work referred to on p. It soon passed to the Continent, and was repeatedly re-written in numerous MSS. Three printed editions appeared between and ; and one of these, containing stories, is the source of the work now known under this title. Tale No. The best edition of the Latin version is by H. Oesterley , Berlin, The Early English versions have been edited by Sir F.

Madden ; and again, in vol. It will be seen that there are seven tales with identical, and one or two more with similar titles, in the two collections. Editions of these two works are very much required. At his request the Rev. So, for instance, Pl. Plate xxviii. The identifications of Nos. Besides the above, Mr. May all good men lend me their favourable attention while I speak! Accordingly from the very outset it will be well to determine the limits of these Epochs. From his leaving the Tusita heaven to his attainment of omniscience on the throne of Knowledge, the narrative is called the Intermediate Epoch.

And the Proximate Epoch is to be found in the various places in which he sojourned during his ministry on earth. The following is. He followed his brahminical studies without engaging in any other pursuit. His parents died while he was still young. To make this matter clear the Story of Sumedha must here be related. This story, though given in full in the Buddhava m sa, from its being in a metrical form, is not very easy to understand.

I will therefore relate it with sentences at intervals explaining the metrical construction. Now one day the wise Sumedha, having retired to the splendid upper apartment of his house, seated himself cross-legged, and fell a thinking. And as a man who is oppressed with sickness, there being a physician who can heal his disease, if he does not get 6 cured by going to the physician that is no fault of the physician; even so if a man who is oppressed by the disease of sin seeks not a spiritual guide who is at hand and knows the road which puts an end to sin, the fault lies with him and not with the sin-destroying teacher.

Having thus in nine similes pondered upon the advantages connected with retirement from the world, the wise Sumedha gave away at his own house, as aforesaid, an immense hoard of treasure to the indigent and wayfarers and sufferers, and kept open house. And renouncing all pleasures, both material and sensual, departing from the city of Amara, away from the world in Himavanta he made himself a hermitage near the mountain called Dhammaka, and built a hut and a perambulation hall free from the five defects which are hindrances to meditation.

And when he had thus given up the world, forsaking this hut, crowded with eight drawbacks, he repaired to the foot of a tree with its ten advantages, and rejecting all sorts of grain lived constantly upon wild fruits. And strenuously exerting himself both in sitting and in standing and in walking, within a week he became the possessor of the eight Attainments, and of the five Supernatural Faculties; and so, in accordance with his prayer, he attained the might of supernatural knowledge.

Therefore it is said,. At the moment of his conception, of his birth, of his attainment of Buddhahood, of his preaching his first discourse, the whole universe 9 of ten thousand worlds trembled, shook and quaked, and gave forth a mighty sound, and the thirty-two prognostics showed themselves. But the hermit Sumedha, living in the bliss of the Attainments, neither heard that sound nor beheld those signs.

And having heard his preaching of the Law, and invited him for the next day, they rose from their seats and departed. And on the next day, having prepared almsgiving for the poor, and having decked out the town, they repaired the road by which the Buddha was to come, throwing earth in the places that were worn away by water and thereby levelling the surface, and scattering sand that looked like strips of silver. And they sprinkled fragrant roots and flowers, and raised aloft flags and banners of many-coloured cloths, and set up banana 10 arches and rows of brimming jars.

And the Arhats, also, four hundred thousand in number, having made offerings to the Bodhisatta of perfumes and garlands, reverentially saluted him and departed. And the angels and men having made the same offerings, and bowed down to him, went their way. And as the Bodhisatta sat thus, the angels in all the ten thousand worlds assembling shouted applause.

This we know, to whom these omens appear, he surely will become Buddha; do thou make a strenuous effort and exert thyself. As the lion, the king of beasts, in every action strenuously exerts himself, so if thou in all existences and in all thy acts art strenuous in exertion, and not a laggard, thou shalt become a Buddha. And as when men throw things pure or foul upon the earth, the earth does not feel either desire or repulsion towards them, but suffers them, endures them and acquiesces in them, even so thou also, if thou art patient in praise and reproach, shalt become Buddha.

And as the planet Venus at all seasons pursues her own course, nor ever goes on another course forsaking her own, even so, if thou forsake not truth and utter no lie, thou shalt become Buddha. For as a mountain, the wind beating upon it in all directions, trembles not, moves not, but stands in its place, even so thou, if unswerving in thy resolution, shalt become Buddha. And as water fills with its refreshing coolness good men and bad alike, even so, if thou art of one mind in friendly feeling towards all mortals, thou shalt become Buddha. And as the earth is indifferent when things pure or impure are cast upon it, even so, if thou art indifferent in prosperity and adversity, thou shalt become Buddha.

And these ten Perfections are neither in the heaven above nor in the earth below, nor are they to be found in the east or the other quarters, but reside in my heart of flesh. Pray does 27 this portend evil to the world or good? And having offered their flowers and other presents, and bowed to him and respectfully saluted him, they returned to the city of Ramma. And the Bodhisatta, having made a strenuous exertion and resolve, rose from the seat on which he sat. As the flowering and fruit-bearing trees bring forth flowers and fruit in their season, so do thou also, not letting the right season pass by, quickly reach the supreme knowledge of a Buddha.

And the people of the city of Ramma, having returned to the city, kept open house to the priesthood with the Buddha at their head. On this subject all that need be said can be learnt from the narrative in the Buddhava m sa, for it is said in that work,. He also had three assemblies of saints, at the first assembly there were a million millions, at the second ten thousand millions, at the third nine hundred millions.

Having mastered the three Treasuries, having obtained the six supernatural Faculties, and having practised without failure the ecstatic meditation, he was reborn in the Brahma heavens. After him, at the end of one asankheyya, in one and the same cycle four Buddhas were born, Mangala, Sumana, Revata and Sobhita. Mangala Buddha had three assemblies of saints, of these at the first there were 32 a million million priests, at the second ten thousand millions, at the third nine hundred millions. This was his third assembly of saints.

And whereas with other Buddhas a light shone from their bodies to the distance of eighty cubits on every side, it was not so with this Buddha, but the light from his body permanently filled ten thousand worlds, and trees, earth, mountains, seas and all other things, not excepting even pots and pans and such-like articles, became as it were overspread with a film of gold. The duration of his life was ninety thousand years, and during the whole of this period the sun, moon and other heavenly bodies could not shine by their own light, and there was no distinction between night and day.

By day all living beings went about in the light of the Buddha as if in the light of the sun, and men ascertained the limits of night and day only by the flowers that blossomed in the evening and by the birds and other animals that uttered their cries in the morning. But in accordance with a prayer made by him in a former existence, the lustre of Mangala Buddha permanently filled ten thousand worlds, just as the lustre of the others permanently extended to the distance of a fathom.

There was also another deed done by him in a former existence. Therefore has the Blessed One said,. And through the merit of this work also the bodily lustre of this Buddha constantly extended through ten thousand worlds. There was a spot some fifty leagues in extent as level as a kasi n a circle. The golden pillars of this hall had silver capitals, the silver pillars had golden capitals, the gem pillars had coral capitals, the coral pillars had gem capitals, while those pillars which were made of all the 36 seven precious stones had capitals of the same.

The instant he looked a fringe of bells hung down, whose musical tinkling, as they were stirred by a gentle breeze, was like a symphony of the five sorts of instruments, or as when the heavenly choirs are going on. And hence we see that as regards almsgiving the Bodhisattas can have no satiety. A space of fifty leagues or more sufficed not to contain the monks, yet they seated themselves each by his own supernatural power. On the last day, having caused the bowls of all the monks to be washed, and filled them with butter clarified and unclarified, honey and molasses, for medicinal use, he gave them back to them, together with the three robes.

The robes and cloaks received by novices and ordained priests were worth a hundred thousand. And having embraced the ascetic life and learnt the word of Buddha, and having attained the supernatural Faculties and the Attainments, at the end of his life he was reborn in the Brahma heavens. When his death took place, after he had lived ninety thousand years, at the same instant ten thousand worlds were involved in darkness, and in all worlds there was a great cry and lamentation of men.

And after the Buddha had died, shrouding in darkness ten thousand worlds, the Teacher named Sumana appeared. He also had three great assemblies of saints, at the first assembly the priests were a million millions, at the second, on the Golden Mountain, ninety million of millions, at the third eighty million of millions. After him the Teacher Revata appeared. He also had 39 three assemblies of saints. At the first assembly the priests were innumerable, at the second there were a million millions, so also at the third. His body was eighty cubits high, and his age sixty thousand years. After him appeared the Teacher Sobhita. He also had three assemblies of saints; at the first assembly a thousand million monks were present, at the second nine hundred millions, at the third eight hundred millions.

Anomadassin had three assemblies of saints; at the first eight hundred thousand monks were present, at the second seven, at the third six. At that time the Bodisat was a Yakkha chief , mighty and powerful, the lord of many millions of millions of yakkhas. He, hearing that a Buddha had appeared, came and gave a great donation to the Order of monks, with the Buddha at their head. After him appeared the Teacher named Paduma. He too had three assemblies of saints; at the first assembly a million million monks were present, at the second three hundred thousand, at the third two hundred thousand of the monks who dwelt at a great grove in the uninhabited forest.

For seven days he laid not aside the bliss arising from the thought of the Buddha, but through joy and gladness, seeking not after prey, he kept in attendance there, offering up his life. He also had three assemblies of saints; at the first assembly a million million monks were present, at the second ninety million million, at the third eighty million million. At that time the Bodisat, having taken the vows as a sage , acquired the five kinds of Wisdom and the eight sublime Acquisitions, and gave a great donation to the Order, with the Buddha at their head, making an offering of red sandal wood.

Sumedha also had three assemblies of his saints; at the first assembly, in the city Sudassana, a thousand million sinless ones were present, at the second 43 nine hundred, at the third eight hundred. At that time the Bodisat, born as the brahman youth named Uttara , lavished eight hundred millions of money he had saved in giving a great donation to the Order, with the Buddha at their head. And he then listened to the Law, and accepted the Refuges, and abandoned his home, and took the vows. He also had three assemblies of his saints; at the first assembly sixty thousand monks were present, at the second fifty, at the third forty.

At that time the Bodisat was a universal monarch ; and hearing that a Buddha was born he went to him and heard the Law, and gave to the Order, with the Buddha at their head, his kingdom of the four continents with its seven treasures, and took the vows under the Teacher. All the dwellers in the land, taking advantage of the birth of a Buddha in their midst, did duty as servants in the monasteries, and continually gave great donations to the Order, with the Buddha at their head.

And to him also the Teacher prophesied. The body of this Blessed One was fifty cubits high, and his age was ninety thousand years. After him, when eighteen hundred world-cycles had elapsed, three Buddhas, Piyadassin, Atthadassin, and Dhammadassin, were born in one kalpa. Piyadassin also had three assemblies of his saints; at the first a million million monks were present, at the second nine hundred million, at the third eight hundred million. His body was eighty cubits high, and his age ninety thousand years.

After him appeared the Teacher called Atthadassin. He too had three assemblies of his saints; at the first nine million eight hundred thousand monks were present, at the second eight million eight hundred thousand, and the same number at the third. His body was eighty cubits high, the glory from his body always extended over a league, and his age was a hundred thousand years. After him appeared the Teacher named Dhammadassin. He too had three assemblies of his saints; at the first a thousand million monks were present, at the second seven hundred millions, at the third eight hundred millions.

At that time the Bodisat, as Sakka the king of the gods , made an offering of sweet-smelling flowers from heaven, and heavenly music. And to him too the Teacher prophesied. His body was eighty cubits high, and his age a hundred thousand years. After him, ninety-four world-cycles ago, only one Buddha, by name Siddhattha , appeared in one kalpa.

Of his disciples too there were three assemblies; at the first assembly a million million monks were present, at the second nine hundred millions, at the third eight hundred millions. His body was sixty cubits high, and his age a hundred thousand years. After him, ninety-two world-cycles ago, two Buddhas, Tissa and Phussa by name, were born in one kalpa.

Tissa the Blessed One had three assemblies of his saints; at the first a thousand millions of monks were present, at the second nine hundred millions, at the third eight hundred millions. After him appeared the Teacher named Phussa. He too had three assemblies of his saints; at the first assembly six million monks were present, at the second five, at the third three million two hundred thousand.

His body was fifty-eight cubits high, and his age ninety thousand years. After him, ninety world-cycles ago, appeared the Blessed One named Vipassin. He too had three assemblies of his saints; at the first assembly six million eight hundred thousand monks were present; in the second one hundred thousand, in the third eighty thousand.

At that time the Bodisat, born as the mighty and powerful snake king Atula , gave to the Blessed One a golden chair, inlaid with the seven kinds of gems. His body was eighty cubits high, the effulgence from his body always reached a hundred leagues, and his age was a hundred thousand years. Sikhin too had three assemblies of his saints; at the first assembly a hundred thousand monks were present, at the second eighty thousand, at the third seventy. At that time the 49 Bodisat, born as king Arindama , gave a great donation of robes and other things to the Order with the Buddha at their head, and offered also a superb elephant, decked with the seven gems and provided with all things suitable.

His body was thirty-seven cubits high, the effulgence from his body reached three leagues, and his age was thirty-seven thousand years. He also had three assemblies of his saints; at the first eight million priests were present, at the second seven, at the third six.

At that time the Bodisat, born as the king Sudassana , gave a great donation of robes and other things to the Order, with the Buddha at their head. And taking the vows at his hands, he became righteous in conduct, and found great joy in meditating on the Buddha. His body was sixty cubits high, and his age sixty thousand years. Kakusandha the Blessed One had one assembly, at which forty thousand monks were present.

At that time the Bodisat, as Kshema the king , gave a great donation, including robes and bowls, to the Order, with the Buddha at their head, and having given also collyriums and drugs, he listened to the Law preached by the Teacher, and took the vows. And to him also the Buddha prophesied. His body was forty cubits high, and his age forty thousand years. Of his disciples too there was one assembly, at which thirty thousand monks were present.

At that time the Bodisat, as Pabbata the king , went, surrounded by his ministers, to the Teacher, and listened to the preaching of the Law. And having given an invitation to the Order, with the Buddha at their head, he kept up a great donation, giving cloths of silk, and of fine texture, and woven with gold. And to him too the Buddha prophesied. His body was twenty cubits high, and his age was thirty thousand years. After him the Teacher named Kassapa appeared in the world. Of his disciples too there was one assembly, at which twenty thousand monks were present.

His body was twenty cubits high, and his age was twenty thousand years. On their part no prophecy was made to the Bodisat, they are therefore not mentioned here; but in the commentary, in order to mention all the Buddhas from this kalpa, it is said,. Now after Kassapa there is no other Buddha beside the present supreme Buddha. And the rewards which fell to him on his way, as they fall to all the Bodisats who have resolved to become Buddhas, are lauded thus:.

While he was thus fulfilling the Perfections, there was no limit to the existences in which he fulfilled the Perfection of Almsgiving. So, certainly, in the Birth as the Wise Hare, according to the words, So, certainly, in the time when he was the wise man Senaka in the Sattubhatta Birth, according to the words,. And when, in the fullness of time, he had passed away, he reassumed existence in the Tusita heaven.

These are the three. Therefore, O friends, do mercy, live in kindness, and sympathy, and peace, cherish your mothers, support your fathers, honour the elders in your tribes. These are the three great proclamations. When of these three they hear the Buddha-proclamation, the deities of the ten thousand world-systems assemble together; and having ascertained which of the then living beings will become the Buddha, they go to him and beseech him to do so,—so beseeching him when the first signs appear that his present life is drawing to its close.

Accordingly on this occasion they all, with the archangels in each world-system, assembled in one world, and going to the future Buddha in the Heaven of Delight, they besought him, saying,. But the Great Being, as if he had not granted the prayer of the deities, reflected in succession on the following five important points, viz. Why not? That therefore is not the time.

Neither is it the right time when the term of human existence is under one hundred years. Because then sin is rife among men; and admonition addressed to the sinners finds no place for edification, but like a streak drawn on the water vanishes quickly away. When, however, the term of human existence is under a hundred thousand and over a hundred years, that is the proper time.

The Kshatriya caste is now predominant, I must be born in it, and Suddhodana the chief shall be my father. In order to explain this better, the following is the account in fuller detail. At that time, it is said, the Midsummer festival was proclaimed in the City of Kapilavastu, and the people were enjoying the feast. On the seventh day she rose early and bathed in perfumed water: and she distributed four hundred thousand pieces in giving great largesse.

Decked in her richest attire she partook of the purest food: and vowing to observe the Eight Commandments, she entered her beautiful chamber, and lying on her royal couch she fell asleep and dreamt this dream. Their queens then came toward her, and taking her to the lake of Anotatta, bathed her to free her from human stains; and dressed her in heavenly garments; and anointed her with perfumes; and decked her with heavenly flowers.

Not far from there is the Silver Hill, within which is a golden mansion; in it they spread a heavenly couch, with its head towards the East, and on it they laid her down. Then the future Buddha, who had become a superb white elephant, and was wandering on the Golden Hill, not far from there, descended thence, and ascending the Silver Hill, approached her from the North. Thus was he conceived at the end of the Midsummer festival. This food he gave them, and he satisfied them with gifts of new garments and of tawny cows.

You will 64 have a son. The Thirty-two Good Omens also were made manifest. In the ten thousand world-systems an immeasurable light appeared. The blind received their sight as if from very longing to behold this his glory. The deaf heard the noise. The dumb spake one with another. The crooked became straight. The lame walked. All prisoners were freed from their bonds and chains. In each hell the fire was extinguished. The hungry ghosts received food and drink. The wild animals ceased to be afraid. The illness of all who were sick was allayed. All men began to speak kindly.

Horses neighed, and elephants trumpeted gently. All musical instruments gave forth each its note, though none played upon them. Bracelets and other ornaments jingled of themselves.

All the heavens became clear. A cool soft breeze wafted pleasantly for all. Rain fell out of due season. Water, welling up from the very earth, overflowed. The waters of the mighty ocean became fresh. Everywhere the earth was covered with lotuses of every colour. All flowers blossomed on land and in water. The trunks, and branches, and twigs of trees were covered with the bloom appropriate to each.

On earth tree-lotuses sprang up by sevens together, breaking even through 65 the rocks; and hanging-lotuses descended from the skies. The ten-thousand world-systems revolved, and rushed as close together as a bunch of gathered flowers; and became as it were a woven wreath of worlds, as sweet-smelling and resplendent as a mass of garlands, or as a sacred altar decked with flowers. From the moment of the incarnation, thus brought about, of the future Buddha, four angels, with swords in their hands, stood guard over the Bodisat and his mother, to shield them from all harm.

Pure in thought, having reached the highest aim and the highest honour, the mother was happy and unwearied; and she saw the child within her as plainly as one could see a thread passed through a transparent gem. Now other women give birth, some before, some after, the completion of the tenth month, some sitting, and some lying down.

Not so the mother of a Bodisat.

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She gives birth to the Bodisat, standing, after she has cherished him in her womb for exactly ten months. This is a distinctive quality of the mother of a Buddha elect. And seating the queen in a golden palanquin carried by a thousand attendants, he sent her away with a great retinue. At that time, from the roots to the topmost branches, it was one mass of fruits and flowers; and amidst the blossoms and branches swarms of various-coloured bees, and flocks of birds of different kinds, roamed, warbling sweetly.

The whole of the Lumbini grove was like a wood of variegated creepers, or the well-decorated banqueting hall of some mighty king. The queen beholding it was filled with the desire of besporting herself in the sal-tree grove; and the attendants, carrying the queen, entered the wood. When she came to the monarch sal-tree of the glade, she wanted to take hold of a branch of it, and the branch bending down, like a reed heated by steam, approached within reach of her hand. Stretching out her hand she took hold of the branch, and then her pains came upon her.

The people drawing a curtain round her, retired. Standing, and holding the branch of the sal-tree, she was delivered. Not so a Bodisat. But though this was so, two showers of water came down from heaven in honour of them and refreshed the Bodisat and his mother. From the hands of the angels who had received him in the golden net, four kings received him on cloth of antelope skins, soft to the touch, such as are used on occasions of royal state.

From their hands men received him on a roll of fine cloth; and on leaving their hands he stood up upon the ground and looked towards the East. Thousands of world-systems became visible to him like a single open space. In the Mahosadha birth the archangel Sakka came to him as he was being born, and placing some fine sandal-wood in his hand, went away.

He came out from the womb holding this in his fist. Taking the medicine they kept 68 it in a chatty an earthenware water-pot ; and it became a drug by which all the sickness of the blind and deaf and others, as many as came, was healed. I would give a gift. Lastly, in this birth he sang the song of victory. And as at the moment of his conception, so at the moment of his birth, the thirty-two Good Omens were seen. Of these last, one was two miles, one four, one six, and one eight miles in size. The people of both towns took the Bodisat and went to Kapilavastu. Tell me the reason of it.

Therefore it is that we are glad! The king ordered his son to be clad in splendour and brought in to salute the ascetic. But the future Buddha turned his feet round, and planted them on the matted hair of the ascetic. And the king also seeing this wonder did homage to his own son. Now the ascetic had the power of calling to mind the events of forty ages kalpas in the past, and of forty ages in the future.

And it will not be my good fortune to behold this so wonderful child when he has become a Buddha. Great, indeed, is my loss! In thirty-five years he will become a Buddha, and it will be granted you to see him. This very day give up the world! Bearing in mind that his uncle was not a man to urge him without a cause, the young man, though born in a family of incalculable wealth, straightway took out of the inner store a yellow suit of clothes and an earthenware pot, and shaved his head and put on the robes.

And when he had lived seven months longer as a pilgrim along the most excellent Path, he past away when standing near a Golden Hill, by that final extinction in which no part or power of man remains. Verily, he will become a Buddha, and remove the veils of sin and ignorance from the world. This man already, under former Buddhas, had made a deep resolve of holiness, and had now reached his last birth.

Verily he will become a Buddha! Assuredly he will become a Buddha. If your fathers were in health they would to-day leave their homes, and take the vows: and now, if you should so desire, come, I will take the vows in imitation of him. I should like to see my son exercising rule and sovereignty over the four great 74 continents and the two thousand islands that surround them; and walking, as it were, in the vault of heaven, surrounded by an innumerable retinue.

So the Bodisat grew up in great splendour and surrounded by an innumerable retinue.